2K22 Tunguska . The 2K22 Tunguska is a Russian self-propelled anti-aircraft system armed with a AA gun and SAM system . The 2K22 Tunguska was developed as a successor to the ZSU-23-4 and as a counter to new ground attack aircraft in development designed to be resistant to 23 mm cannons. The 2K22 is designed to provide day and night protection for infantry and tank regiments against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles in all weather conditions. Its NATO reporting name is SA-19 "Grison".
The system is referred to as 2K22 under the GRAU index, though the army designation 9K22 is a valid alternative.
The 2K22 uses the GM-352 chassis produced by the Minsk Tractor Plant. It has six road wheels with hydropneumatic suspension on each side, a drive sprocket at the rear and three return rollers. The chassis is capable of fording to a depth of 0.8 meters, climbing gradients of up to 60% and side slopes of 30%. The GM-352 can cross a one meter vertical obstacle and a two meter trench.
Overall the layout is similar to the previous ZSU-23-4 with a large central turret containing the armament and sensors. A parabolic target acquisition radar is mounted on the rear top of the turret that when combined with the turret front mounted tracking radar forms the 1RL144 (NATO: Hot Shot) radar system. The mechanically scanned target acquisition radar for the 2K22 offers a 360-degree field of view, a detection range of around 18 km and can detect targets flying as low as 15 m,
A battery of six 2K22s can automatically receive fire control information via an encrypted radio link. This allows targets to be distributed between individual units from a battery command post, which can receive target information from either AWACS or early warning radar or with its own radar equipment.
The 2K22 is armed with dual 2A38 30 mm autocannons. The cannons are fired alternatively with a combined rate of fire of between 3,900 and 5,000 rounds per minute and have a muzzle velocity of 960 m/s. Bursts of between 83 and 250 rounds are fired as determined by the target type, with an engagement range between 0.2 and 4.0 km and to an altitude of 4 km. The 2K22 can fire its cannons in two primary modes of operation, radar and optical. In radar mode the target tracking is fully automatic, with the guns aimed using data from the radar. In optical mode the gunner tracks the target through the stabilized sight, with the radar providing range data.
The system uses the same 9M311 missile family as the naval CIWS. The missile has two stages, a large booster stage with four folding fins, which boosts the missile to a velocity of 900 m/s, before falling away. The second stage has four fixed fins, and four steerable control surfaces.
The 2K22 was until recently a unique and highly competitive weapons system, though in 2007 the Pantsir gun and missile system entered production at KBP—a descendant of the Tunguska, the Pantsir system offers even greater performance than its predecessor
Weight - 34,000 kg
Length - 7.93 m
Width - 3.24 m
Height - 4.01 m
Crew - 4 (vehicle commander, driver, gunner, radar operator)
Main armament - 8 × 9M311 missiles
Secondary armament - 2 × 30 mm 2A38M w/1,904 rounds
Engine - Turbocharged V-12 water cooled 4-stroke diesel w/780 hp
Ground clearance - 45 cm
Range - 500 km
Speed - 65 km/h